Harming is more intentional than helping because it is more probable:A hidden influence of probability on the Knobe effect

Kuninori NakamuraSeijo University

Abstract

Knobe (2003) demonstrated that people’s intentionality judgments in side effects depend on the outcome of the sideeffect,indicating that people’s judgments of intentionality of action depend on not only the intention of the actor but also on the result of the action. However, on the basis of findings in judgment and decision making (e.g., Harris, Corner, & Hahn, 2009), the current study proposes another hypothesis to Knobe’s (2003) results: the participants’ intentionality judgments depended on the probabilities of outcomes provided by the action, rather than on the outcomes itself. To test this hypothesis, the present study employed an identical experimental procedure to Knobe (2003), except that it required not only intentionality and probability judgments for outcomes that resulted from the actions of a company president. The results replicated the findings of Knobe (2003) and showed a relationship between probability and intentionality judgment.

Files

Harming is more intentional than helping because it is more probable:A hidden influence of probability on the Knobe effect (94 KB)



Back to Table of Contents