The process of phonological encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word, which correspond roughly to the onset and the rhyme of the words syllable. Regardless of SOAs, response times were shorter in the related condition than in the unrelated condition (an onset priming effect) for word typing, but were similar for word naming. The results suggest that naming and typing in Chinese may involve somewhat different phonological encoding processes even though both tasks require accessing the phonological codes. It is hypothesized that phonological encoding in Chinese is syllable driven in word naming, but is segment driven in word typing.