Endogenous orienting in the archer fish

AbstractVolitional orienting, most commonly explored in humans using the classic Posner endogenous cuing task, is often linked to neocortical regions. We applied this task in a species lacking a neocortex (i.e., archer fish). Our study provides a demonstration of facilitation and inhibition of return as a result of a purely endogenous (centrally presented, informative, and symbolic) cue. The results have major implications for our understanding of the evolution of orienting (reflexive and volitional), and for the paradigms used to study “volitional” processes.


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