# The Computational Process of “And-type” Conditionals in Japanese

- Michinao Matsui,
*Osaka Health Science University, 1-9-27, Temma, Kita-ku, Osaka-Shi, Osaka, Japan*

## Abstract

Japanese has four types of conditional sentences:
“Nara-type”, “Reba-type”, “Tara-type” and the
natural consequence expression using “To (And-type).” Among these
four types, only And-type conditionals cannot express counterfactuals. Masuoka
(1993) says that the Japanese conjunction “To (And)” is an index
which calculates the relevance between elements. This paper explains this
phenomenon based on Relevance Theory (Sperber et al. 1986). Cognitive relevance
between the information A and B is defined by correlation coefficient (CR1) or by
Loose Symmetry Model (CR2, Shinohara and Nakano, 2007).
(1) CR1=P(AB)/P(A)−k∙P(aB)/P(a) (2)
CR2=(P(AB)+P(Ab)∙P(ab)/P(b))/(P(AB)+P(Ab)+P(AB)∙P(aB)/P(B)+P(Ab)∙P(ab)/P(b))
In the expression of counterfactuals, the relation P(a)=P(ab)+P(ab)=0 is trivial.
Thefore, CR1 is computable only when the coefficient “k” which means
the frame range of anti-factual situation equals zero. This computation leads the
result of impossibility of And-type counterfactuals. On the other hand, CR2
cannot explain this impossibility because CR2 is always infinite. Therefore, CR1
is the better definition than CR2.

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