In this research, we investigated cognitive processes while playing Mini-Shogi through fMRI and cognitive experiments. Mini-Shogi is a Japanese chess-like game that uses a small board. In our cognitive experiment, the group of stronger Mini-Shogi players the stronger group’s total thinking time shortened and their total number of eye movements decreased. However, our investigation of search depth revealed different results from those of past research. The results of our fMRI experiment revealed that after learning, activity in the caudate nucleus increased among stronger players. The results of our experiments suggested that intuitive ability and the capacity for careful consideration are not independent.